Table 2. Characteristics of individual studies.
Study Sample sizeTotal (experimental + control) Participants Interventionduration Intervention type
Bredeweg et al. 2012 362 (171 + 191) Runners, beginners; more females (65%); mean age 38.1 ± 10.8 4 weeks; followed by 9-week running program Hopping bouts and walking sessions in running shoes, two session per week. Six repetitions of 5-minute walking bouts followed by hopping Number of hops per set between the first and the last session increased from 50 to 90. One session per week included walking only. Duration of this session was also progressed (from 30 to 60 minutes).
Brushoj et al. 2008 1020 (507 + 513) Military recruits;mean age 20.9 (range, 19-26 years); 3 months; intervention carried out concomitantly with the running program Conditioning exercises, 3 sessions per week (squats, lunges, hip rotation/abduction with elastics, forefoot lift, quadriceps stretch and a foot coordination exercise). Three sets of each exercise, repetitions varied from 5 to 20 between exercises.
vanMechelen et al. 1993 326 (159 + 167) Male recreational runners;No mean age delivered; 16 weeks; intervention carried out concomitantly with the running program Warm-up and cool-down protocol (low intensity running, dynamic and static stretching). Static stretching exercises included three bouts (10 seconds each) for the iliopsoas and quadriceps muscles, the hamstrings, and the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles.
Pope et al. 2000 1185 (623 + 562) Military recruits;no mean age delivered (range 17-35 years) 3 months; intervention carried out concomitantly with the running program Stretching prior to workouts; one repetition (20 seconds) for six major muscle groups of the lower limb - gastrocnemius, soleus, hamstrings, quadriceps, hip adductor, and hip flexor muscle groups.
Pope et al. 1998 1039 (549 + 544) Military recruits;no mean age delivered (range 17-35 years) 3 months; intervention carried out concomitantly with the running program Stretching prior to workouts; two 20-second stretches for m. soleus and two for m. gastrocnemius.
Rudzki 1997 486 (250 + 236) Military recruits;mean age 19.1 (range, 17-31 years); 3 months; intervention carried out concomitantly with the running program Replacement of running with weighted marching (16.5 of total 26 km). The load was 16.2 kg at the beginning and was increased for 2.6kg per week after week five.
Buist et al. 2008 350 (170 + 180) Runners, different levels of experience; more females (57%); mean age 39.8 ± 10.1; BMI 25,2 (exp) and 24,4 (con) 13 weeks for the experimental group; 8 week for the control group; A more gradual running program, compared to the control group.