Table 5. Protein phosphorylation and mRNA expression. Values are mean (±SD).
CONT group (n = 10) WGFE group (n = 10)
Week 0 Week 12 Week 0 Week 12
Pre-exercise Post-exercise Pre-exercise Post-exercise Pre-exercise Post-exercise Pre-exercise Post-exercise
Phosphorylated to non-phosphorylated protein ratio
AKT1 1.00 (.00) 2.23 (2.58) .91 (.61) 1.25 (1.00) 1.00 (.00) 1.62 (2.30) 1.89 (2.48) .84 (1.20)
mTOR 1.00 (.00) 1.52 (.98) 1.14 (1.40) 2.61 (2.84) 1.00 (.00) 3.79 (4.99) 1.60 (1.56) 5.47 (4.75)*
p70s6k 1.00 (.00) 4.86 (5.13)* 1.46 (1.24) 3.64 (4.42) 1.00 (.00) 2.50 (2.09) .78 (.50) 4.95 (3.16)
FOXO3a 1.00 (.00) 1.04 (1.03) 1.64 (1.89) 1.31 (1.20) 1.00 (.00) .94 (.38) .97 (.25) 1.16 (.81)
mRNA expression
IGF-1Ea mRNA 1.00 (.00) .77 (.56) .96 (.52) .78 (.31) 1.00 (.00) 1.21 (1.02) 1.40 (.49) .98 (.76)
Atrogin-1 mRNA 1.00 (.00) .60 (.54) 1.07 (.51) .41 (.24) 1.00 (.00) .57 (.41) 1.58 (1.24) .80 (.60)
MHC I mRNA 1.00 (.00) 1.14 (.56) 1.28 (1.06) 1.13 (.94) 1.00 (.00) 1.37 (.66) 1.50 (.94) .95 (.79)
MHC IIa mRNA 1.00 (.00) 1.01 (.48) .87 (.48) .95 (.82) 1.00 (.00) 1.27 (.84) 1.48 (1.14) .86 (.35)
MHC IIx mRNA 1.00 (.00) 1.16 (1.58) 1.10 (2.27) .48 (.39) 1.00 (.00) 1.00 (.67) 1.48 (1.76) .94 (.91)
CONT = Control, WGFE = Whey Growth Factor Extract.
*significantly different from Week 0 pre-exercise
†significantly different from Week 0 pre-exercise.
‡significantly different from Week 12 pre-exercise.