Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine


Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968
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©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2004) 03, 118 - 130
Review article
Protein - Which is Best?
Jay R. Hoffman, Michael J. Falvo

The Department of Health and Exercise Science, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, New Jersey, USA

Jay R. Hoffman
‚úČ Department of Health and Exercise Science, The College of New Jersey, PO Box 7718,Ewing, NJ 08628-0718, USA

26-05-2004 -- Accepted: 28-06-2004 --
Published (online): 01-09-2004


Protein intake that exceeds the recommended daily allowance is widely accepted for both endurance and power athletes. However, considering the variety of proteins that are available much less is known concerning the benefits of consuming one protein versus another. The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze key factors in order to make responsible recommendations to both the general and athletic populations. Evaluation of a protein is fundamental in determining its appropriateness in the human diet. Proteins that are of inferior content and digestibility are important to recognize and restrict or limit in the diet. Similarly, such knowledge will provide an ability to identify proteins that provide the greatest benefit and should be consumed. The various techniques utilized to rate protein will be discussed. Traditionally, sources of dietary protein are seen as either being of animal or vegetable origin. Animal sources provide a complete source of protein (i.e. containing all essential amino acids), whereas vegetable sources generally lack one or more of the essential amino acids. Animal sources of dietary protein, despite providing a complete protein and numerous vitamins and minerals, have some health professionals concerned about the amount of saturated fat common in these foods compared to vegetable sources. The advent of processing techniques has shifted some of this attention and ignited the sports supplement marketplace with derivative products such as whey, casein and soy. Individually, these products vary in quality and applicability to certain populations. The benefits that these particular proteins possess are discussed. In addition, the impact that elevated protein consumption has on health and safety issues (i.e. bone health, renal function) are also reviewed.

Key words: Sport supplementation, ergogenic aid, animal protein, vegetable protein
Key Points
  • Higher protein needs are seen in athletic populations.
  • Animal proteins is an important source of protein, however potential health concerns do exist from a diet of protein consumed from primarily animal sources.
  • With a proper combination of sources, vegetable proteins may provide similar benefits as protein from animal sources.
  • Casein protein supplementation may provide the greatest benefit for increases in protein synthesis for a prolonged duration.


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